What to Expect from Your Lawyer – Top Five Things to Know About Phone Calls

shutterstock_155858537-thumb-500x334-65280Lawyers can seem like they’re from a foreign land with their own strange customs and language. And, let’s face it, sometimes (okay, a lot of times) some lawyers seem unapproachable, which can make the client experience less than a good one.

At Hightower Reff, we do our best to be approachable, talk like real people and have a productive relationship with our clients. However, like many lawyers, despite our best efforts to do this, we sometimes fall short of our clients’ expectations.

In this series, What to Expect from Your Lawyer, Hightower Reff Partner Attorney Susan Reff will give you some useful information to help you understand why your lawyer handles things the way they do and to maintain reasonable expectations regarding your attorney.

This week: Top five things to know about phone calls.

1. Call Me, Maybe? – Or Maybe Your Lawyer is a Jerk

One of the most common complaints about lawyers is that it may seem they take forever to return calls or don’t return them at all.

Despite the appearance, most of us really do get that timely return calls are important to the client. I say most of us, because – as with any profession – there are a few bad lawyers out there. Either they are bad at managing their case load, have personal problems or they are just jerks. However, other than those exceptions, we attorneys do our very best to make our clients happy with all aspects of our communications with them – including phone calls.

But there are several reasons you may not get a timely return call or talk directly with your attorney at all. Understanding why and keeping reasonable expectations can be helpful to a good client experience.

2. It’s Usually About Time

Good lawyers attract a lot of clients. Lawyers with a lot of clients are always pressed for time. That’s why they typically rely on trusted staff to help manage their cases and communicate with clients. Support staff can answer routine questions, field calls and follow up with the lawyer on any questions the lawyer needs to answer. This frees your lawyer up to do things that only they can do like planning your legal strategy, attending hearings, solving emergencies and negotiating with opposing counsel.

In other words, your lawyer has to prioritize his or her time to do their job well. That doesn’t mean you aren’t important. In fact, it means you’re so important, they want to be sure they can devote the necessary time to your case when your case demands it. They need to do the same for their other clients as well.

As a result — unless you’re in the middle of a complex issue, crisis or negotiation in your case, preparing for a hearing or trial that is happening soon or in the throes of another legally dire aspect of your case — it’s reasonable that your attorney may enlist the support of another lawyer in the firm, a paralegal or assistant to take care of your call.

3. It’s Privileged  

In some circumstances, a lawyer actually can’t call a person back because of attorney client privilege, such as when the caller isn’t the client. This commonly happens when someone other than the client is paying the lawyer’s bill.

For example, if you hire a lawyer to represent your son in his divorce, the lawyer can’t talk to you about the case unless your son signs a release.

In some circumstances – like criminal cases – the lawyer may not talk to you even if a release has been signed. This is because sharing details of the case with anyone but the client may mean that information is no longer privileged and could be used against the client. You could be called by the other side to testify about what the attorney told you.

4. The World’s Most Expensive Pay Phone

Before you pick up the phone to call your lawyer – remember that each time you call, you are going to incur a charge on your bill. Sometimes calling your attorney can seem like the world’s most expensive pay phone.

Unless it’s something urgent or time sensitive, ask yourself if the question can wait until the next time they call you, or until you have more than one question. We recommend our clients make a list of these “little” questions that are bound pop up and ask them all at once.

If you are a person who needs regular reassuring from your attorney personally, if your attorney is willing and able, you may want to schedule a weekly phone call with them when you are in the active phases of your case. That way, you can have peace of mind by touching base at least once a week, and have your “little question list” ready to go for the weekly call.

5. Sometimes It’s Not a Good Fit 

There are many legitimate reasons a lawyer may take a long time to return your call or not call back at all. But like with any personal service, sometimes what the lawyer is willing or able to do and what you want does not mesh. It may just not be a good fit. If that is the case, it’s best to figure it out early and find a better fit.

A good attorney who is the right fit for you is crucial, and Hightower Reff can help. Call us at 402-932-9550, or contact us online.

Next Time…

Watch for Part II of our series: Why You Need to Pick Your Battles. 

This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

Must Have Information on Child Custody 
Part I: What Are the Best Interests of the Child?

shutterstock_218576749-thumb-500x367-65272Going through a child custody case can be tough for parents, especially if you’re in the dark about Nebraska child custody law.

In this series,Must Have Information on Child Custody, we’ll take some of the mystery out of the law and give you information you need about child custody in Nebraska. 

This week, we discuss the legal concept of best interests of the child, known in lawyer speak as BIOC. 

Splitting the Time, Not the Baby

In the well-known tale of the judgement of Solomon, King Solomon has to decide which of two women is the true mother of an infant boy. Solomon told the women that there was only one fair solution: the infant must be split in two so each woman could have half of the child. 

The boy’s true mother immediately cried:  “Oh, Lord, give the baby to her, just don’t kill him!” Of course the King never intended to split the baby in two. He knew that only a true, loving mother would give up her baby rather than hurt him. 

This story is a popular example of wisdom in judgment among lawyers and judges. It also provides a compelling example of a parent guided by the best interests of her child during a custody battle. 

The judge in your custody case also has no intent of splitting your child in two, of course. But time with your child is another matter. Even if you don’t like the other parent, or he or she has flaws, unless they are a danger to the child, the law favors giving your child the opportunity to have a full relationship with them, which means splitting time. Parenting time is always guided by the individual best interests of your child.

The Recipe for a BIOC Decision

You and the other parent can decide on your parenting plan together through mediation or by working with your lawyers to draft your own parenting plan. If you can’t decide together, the judge will decide for you based on the best interests of your child.

 But what does best interest of the child mean here in Nebraska? Deciphering that can be confusing and frustrating for parents in child custody cases. 

According to the Nebraska Parenting Act

  1. The court’s decision must provide for the child’s safety, health, stability, emotional growth, physical care and “regular and continuous school attendance and progress” for kids who are school-age.
  2. If the court decides there is domestic partner abuse, the parenting arrangement must provide for the safety of the parent being abused. 
  3. Those serving in the roles of parents must be appropriate in their involvement with the child. They also have to help continue relationships between the child and family members who have shown the ability to have a healthy relationship with the child. 
  4. Even if the parents have agreed on a plan to parent the child or children, the court has to find that plan is in the best interests of the child or it will not accept the plan.

If the court rejects a parenting plan, the court has to say, in writing, why the parenting plan is not in the best interests of the child. 

Nebraska law also says, to provide for the best interest of the child, the goal of the entire court process, including mediation, should:

  • minimize the damage parental conflict can do to children 
  • provide parents the tools they need make decisions that are best for the child 
  • provide alternative dispute resolution options that are less combative than traditional court cases tend to be 
  • ensure that the child’s voice is heard and considered in parenting decisions 
  • maximize the safety of family members through the justice process
  • in cases of domestic intimate partner abuse or child abuse or neglect, to put into the parenting plan, the principles of victim safety and sensitivity, offender accountability, and community safety.

But Wait…There’s More

In addition to everything already mentioned, when the court orders custody and parenting arrangements, in considering the best interest of the child, it also has to consider:

  • The relationship the child had with each parent before the court case started or before any hearing in the case
  • What the child wants, so long as the child’s reasoning is sound
  • The general health, welfare, and social behavior of the minor child
  • Credible evidence of abuse inflicted on any family or household member
  • Credible evidence of child abuse or neglect or domestic intimate partner abuse

The best thing you can do as a parent to make sure the parenting arrangement that results from your court case is in the best interests of your child is to remember one thing above all else: no matter how contentious things might be between you and the other parent or how hard the feelings, this process is about doing what’s best for your child, not you. Far too many parents lose sight of that and the child suffers even more because of it.

Don’t Go It Alone

It’s important to have the right support during a child custody case to help you help your child. While friends mean well, most of them probably aren’t legal experts or mental health professionals. A good attorney is crucial, and Hightower Reff can help. Call us at 402-932-9550, or contact us online.

 You may also consider a counselor to help you work through your feelings surrounding the custody case so you can clear your head, so to speak, and truly focus on your child. 

Next Time…

Watch for Part II of our child custody series: Pointers for Prosperity in your Parenting Plan. 

 This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

So You Got Yourself Named in a Felony Warrant, Now What? 
Part IV – Criminal Sentencing – It’s About More Than Just Time

shutterstock_218715781-thumb-400x267-65269-thumb-500x333-65270A felony warrant turns your world upside down. Not only are your freedom and your future on the line, if it’s your first arrest, you’ll have no idea what to expect. This series will give you the basic information you’ll want to know if you or a loved one is facing a criminal charge in Nebraska.

In part one of this criminal law series on felonies, we laid out your options once you learn of the warrant and what happens once you’re arrested. Part two covered the nitty gritty of plea bargains. In the third installment, we discussed the trial.

Now, in Part four, we cover the sentencing process.

The Sentence: No Rabbit Out of a Hat

On TV legal dramas it seems like the judge just pulls a sentence out of a hat. In the real world, that’s not how it works.

The court does have some discretion when sentencing for felonies, but the parameters are governed by Nebraska Sentencing Guidelines. The guidelines govern things like the minimum and maximum sentences for certain felonies and where the sentence is to be served.

Sentencing Guidelines Don’t Stop a Bitch

Don’t make the mistake of thinking that the Nebraska Sentencing Guidelines are going to save you from a bitch (slang for habitual criminal sentence). The Guidelines make it clear that they do not impact the habitual criminal sentencing laws.

PSI: Nebraska

Along with the Nebraska Sentencing Guidelines, the judge relies on a pre-sentence investigation (PSI) report when deciding a felon’s sentence. The PSI contains:

  • an analysis of the circumstances surrounding the crime
  • the offender’s history of delinquency or criminality
  • the offender’s physical and mental condition, family situation and background, economic status, education, occupation, personal habits and any other matters that the probation officer deems relevant or the court directs to be included

The PSI can also include any written statements a victim submits to the county attorney or probation officer.

The court can order you to undergo psychiatric observation and evaluation as part of the PSI procedure. Your attorney can add to the PSI with character letters from your friends, family or co-workers as well as other positive things like good employment records and information about your community involvement.

The Hearing

The court will sentence you at a sentencing hearing. You’ll have the opportunity to address the court — and victims may as well. Depending on the circumstances, it may or may not be helpful for you to address the court, so you’ll need to make that decision with your attorney, just one of the many reasons having a good attorney to guide you throughout the PSI process is important.

Get Help Early

The best thing you can do if you are accused of a felony (or any crime) is to get experienced legal help from the beginning. My power to help you as a lawyer can be lessened if my client has done something to damage his or her case before I get involved.

If you need help with a felony or other criminal matter, contact Hightower Reff online, or call us at 402-932-9550.

Next Time…

Watch for Part V of our felony arrest series: To Appeal or Not to Appeal, That is the Question.

This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

So You Got Yourself Named in a Felony Warrant, Now What? 
Part III: What to Expect When You’re Expecting… to Go to Trial

shutterstock_170949320-thumb-400x266-65277A felony warrant turns your world upside down. Not only are your freedom and your future on the line – if it’s your first arrest, you’ll have no idea what to expect. This series will give you the basic information you’ll want to know if you or a loved one is facing a criminal charge in Nebraska.

In Part I , we covered your options once you learn of the warrant and what happens once you’re arrested. Part II covered the nitty gritty of plea bargains.

Now, in Part III, we shed some light on what happens between your arrest and trial.

The Waiting is the Hardest Part

If you don’t reach a plea, be prepared to wait a while for you trial. Because of busy courts and legal wrangling, it can take a year or more for a felony case to reach trial in Douglas County, Nebraska.

A lot of preparation needs to happen before a felony trial, which also adds to the wait. Most of the work on your case, in fact, is done before your trial even starts. Some of the work occurs right at the start of the case, so your attorney can try to get your case dismissed or pled down right off the bat. Attorneys for both sides want to know the facts of your case inside and out and put together a game plan both before and during your trial.

To avoid surprises, lawyers on both sides ask questions of witnesses and get documents, physical objects and photos that the other side plans to introduce to the court to support their side of the case.  Your lawyer may conduct an independent investigation by talking to experts, interviewing witnesses, subpoenaing documents and even visiting the scene of the alleged crime. While much of this is done at the very beginning of the case, the work continues to the day of trial; and can take months.

Lawyers also make sure they know the current law that applies to your case before trial starts. Unlike T.V. lawyers, real attorneys don’t carry a catalog of statutes and cases in their heads to recite on demand. Most know the most important ones but the law is huge and changes frequently. That means a lot of pre-trial research and studying so the lawyers know their stuff before they walk into the courtroom.

Magic Evidence: Now You See It; Now the Jury Doesn’t

What evidence the jury sees during the trial and the instructions the judge gives them are crucial to your case. Your lawyer will try to find good reasons under the law to keep the evidence that hurts your case out of the trial through procedural motions.

Additionally, your lawyer will try to convince the judge to use jury instructions that are most favorable to you, while the prosecuting attorney will try to get the judge to use those that are most favorable to a conviction.

Settling On the Courthouse Steps 

All the months of preparation and hard work don’t always end in trial. Sometimes you reach a plea agreement on the day of trial — known as settling “on the courthouse steps.” If that happens, your lawyer’s preparation (and your legal expense) was not wasted. The clarity both sides gained through that preparation and legal wrangling most likely led to the prosecutor’s decision to offer a plea and your decision to accept it.

Get Help Early

The best thing you can do if you are accused of a felony (or any crime) is to get experienced legal help from the beginning. My power to help you as a lawyer can be lessened if my client has done something to damage his or her case before I get involved.

If you need help with a felony or other criminal matter, contact Hightower Reff online, or call us at 402-932-9550.

Next Time…

Watch for Part IV of our felony arrest series: Criminal Sentencing – Determining the Time You’ll do.

This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

(Almost) Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Nebraska Divorce – Part V – The Decree & After the Ink Dries: Why The End of Your Divorce Case Doesn’t Necessarily Mean It’s Finished

There’s no getting around it: divorce can be unpleasant and daunting. For most people, the legal process of divorce is especially foreign and scary. With(Almost) Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Nebraska Divorce, we’ll try to take away some of that fear by answering some of the most frequently asked questions we get from our clients about divorce in Nebraska.

Part V – The Decree & After the Ink Dries: Why The End of Your Divorce Case Doesn’t Necessarily Mean It’s Finished

So far in our series, we’ve answered questions about getting started with a Nebraska divorce, talked about what to expect after you file for divorce in Nebraska, covered some divorce basics including Qualified Domestic Relations Orders (QDRO’s), and given you some important info about child custody and support. In this final installment, we cover getting the final order and enforcing it.

Q: Do I have to go to trial?  

A.  Maybe. In many divorces, a settlement can be reached. In come cases, however, emotions or other factors make it difficult for parties to come to an agreement on the issues and a trial is necessary for the judge to decide them.

Q: Do my spouse and I have to attend the final hearing?

A: Not if you both agree to a final settlement and/or parenting plan and have signed the necessary documents. In that case, the Decree, Property Settlement Agreement and Parenting Plan can be submitted to the Judge along with a wavier of final hearing. So long as the Judge finds the agreements acceptable under the law, he or she will sign off without needing you to appear in court.

Q: When will my divorce be final?

A:  The divorce is final 30 days after the date the Judge signs the decree.  That means that appeals must be filed within that time period.

Q: When can I remarry?

A:  Your divorce is final six months after the date of the decree.  So you must wait six months to remarry – no matter where you do it.

Q: What if my former spouse doesn’t do what he or she is ordered to do after the Decree is entered?

A:  It’s best to consult your attorney if your former spouse is willfully disobeying the court’s order. Your attorney can ask the court to require your former spouse to appear before the court and show cause why he or she should not be held in contempt of court. If he or she is found in contempt, the court will generally allow time for the order to be followed. After that time elapses, the parties will return to court. If your former spouse still has not complied, he or she may be sanctioned until there is compliance. Sometimes it can take multiple enforcement hearings before both parties do everything they were ordered to do in the decree. It can be frustrating. A good lawyer is the best support.

Get the Experienced Help You Need

If you need help with a divorce, or enforcement of a decree, call Hightower Reff Law at 402-932-9550 or contact us online. We are experienced Omaha area attorneys who can help you through this difficult process.

This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

So You Got Yourself Named in a Felony Warrant, Now What? 
Part II: To Plea or Not to Plea

A Nebraska felony warrant turns your world upside down. Not only are your freedom and your future on the line – if it’s your first arrest, you’ll have no idea what to expect. This series will give you the basic information you’ll want to know if you or a loved one is facing a felony charge in Nebraska.

In Part I, we covered your options once you learn of the warrant, and what to expect once you’re arrested.

Now, in Part II of our series, we look at the nitty gritty of plea bargains when it comes to facing a Nebraska Felony Warrant.

This is no Law & Order

You’ve seen it a million times on Law & Order: The district attorney stares with contempt at the “perp” shackled to the table and advises the defense attorney to tell her client to “take the deal.”

It’s great TV, but real life is a lot more boring. Generally, a plea comes during a phone call or email with the prosecutor’s office. Or, it can come right before or even during the trial. The “perp” usually isn’t in the room during the discussion between the lawyers.  Also, unlike Law & Order, it may be a year or more before the pre-trial work and negotiating is finished and the case is either resolved with a plea or goes to trial.

Three Things You Can Bargain For

On TV, the defense lawyer and the prosecutor usually argue over sentencing, but there is a lot more room for negotiation. It depends on the case, but defense attorneys and prosecutors can negotiate any or all of the following:

  1. The charges:  This is the most common plea bargain. The prosecutor agrees to reduce the number of charges or the severity of the charges, usually in exchange for a guilty plea.
  2. The time you’ll do: This one you’re probably familiar with. It’s where the prosecutor agrees to a lesser sentence than the defendant could face. Sometimes on TV, they combine charge bargaining and sentence bargaining. This can happen in real life too. However, the sentence is up to the judge. The prosecutor can recommend a certain term, so long as it’s within the parameters of Nebraska law, but in the end, the sentence is always up to the court.
  3. The facts: On rare occasions, the defense attorney may be able to negotiate that the defendant will admit to certain facts to keep others from being introduced to the court. This is rare in Douglas County, Nebraska because the judge generally will see the entire police report as part of the report that is conducted prior to sentencing (known as a pre-sentence investigation report, or PSI), and will consider all the facts when sentencing.

Additionally, there are things you can do to help your plea bargain, like drug and alcohol treatment, counseling, or compensating the victim for the losses they suffered because of the crime. We will cover this more in-depth later in the series when we talk about sentencing

So should you take the deal? 

After I get the offer from the prosecutor, I relay it to my client with my advice regarding the pros and cons of accepting the deal. Sometimes it takes some legal wrangling to figure out exactly what evidence the prosecution will be able to actually get in at trial – which affects my advice to clients as to whether or not they should try to reach a plea agreement. No matter what, the decision as to whether to accept it is always up to the client.

A bargain isn’t a guarantee

Even if the defendant, his or her attorney, and the prosecutor’s office reach an agreement, it isn’t a done deal until the court accepts it. That depends on whether the defendant is able to and in fact makes a knowing, voluntary waiver of his or her rights, and whether there is a factual basis to support the charges to which the defendant is entering a plea. If these conditions are met, the sentence is ultimately up to the judge and Nebraska law.

Get help early

The best thing you can do if you are accused of a felony or any crime, is to get experienced legal help from the very beginning. My power to negotiate as a lawyer can be lessened if my client has done something to damage his or her negotiating power before I come on to the case.

If you need help with a felony or other criminal matter, contact Hightower Reff online, or call us at 402-932-9550.

Next Time in the Series

Watch for Part III of our felony arrest series – What to Expect When You’re Expecting… to go to Trial.

This article should not be construed as legal advice. Situations are different and it’s impossible to provide legal advice for every situation without knowing the individual facts. 

Avoiding a Parent Trap: Adoption Key to Protecting Same Sex Couples’ Parental Rights


shutterstock_125845649-thumb-400x288-65254The U.S. Supreme Court’s June 2015 ruling validated same sex marriage nationwide. But it didn’t just impact marriage, it also changed the rights for divorce and as we’ll look at here, parenting. Now, more than ever, same sex couples need to explore the impact of the ruling on their parental rights, particularly when it comes to adoption.

Joint Adoption for Same Sex Spouses Now Allowed

In Nebraska, joint adoption by two people is only allowed if the two people are married. Before the Supreme Court’s marriage ruling, same sex couples’ marriages were not legally recognized so they couldn’t jointly adopt in Nebraska.

Now that same sex marriages are valid under Nebraska law (and nationwide), married same sex couples can adopt jointly. Nebraska statutes now apply to adoption by any married couple — opposite sex and same sex couples alike. Adoptions for married same sex couples work the same way as for opposite sex spouses. There is no difference.

Stepparent Adoption May Be a Must to Protect Parental Rights

Before the Supreme Court ruling, if a same sex couple got married in another state and one partner adopted a child in Nebraska, or gave birth to a child, their partner couldn’t adopt jointly and had no parental rights under Nebraska law.

Now, however, that couple is considered legally married and all the same rights that apply to opposite sex couples apply to them. This means the non-adoptive/non-biological spouse now can – and needs to — legally adopt the child to protect his or her parental rights.

Adoption is necessary because the non-biological/non-adoptive spouse is seen as a stepparent in the eyes of the law. Stepparents do not have the same parental rights or legal protections as adoptive or biological parents.

For instance, the law doesn’t recognize the non-biological/non-adoptive spouse as anything more than a stepparent during the marriage. The only legal parent of the child is the one who adopted or gave birth. That has ramifications for medical records and consents as well as other areas of legal decision making.

And if the couple later divorces and the non-biological/non-adoptive spouse did not complete a stepparent adoption? He or she will not have parental rights after the divorce. While they may get some continued contact as a former stepparent, it isn’t guaranteed and it isn’t the same as it would have been had they completed a stepparent adoption.

Adoption Makes Parenting Permanent

Once an adoption is done, both parents are seen to be the child’s parents in the eyes of the law. That relationship – just like a biological parent/child relationship – survives divorce and death. The parent and child will have a legally protected relationship after divorce allowing for continued parenting time and financial support. The child also has the right to inherit from that parent upon the parent’s death.

Getting Help

Navigating this changed landscape of same sex adoption and parental rights created by the Supreme Court’s Constitutional recognition of same sex marriage presents some challenges. To make sure your rights — and those of your children — are protected, if you’re a same sex couple who already has children, or are thinking of becoming parents, you should meet with an experienced attorney like those at Hightower Reff. Contact us online or call us at 402-932-9550 to find out how we can help.

The Right to Divorce – Lifting the Legal Limbo for Same Sex Couples

shutterstock_34797877-thumb-400x301-65252Whether or not you are among those cheering last week’s Supreme Court decision recognizing Constitutional protection for same sex marriage, there is no denying that it has changed state of the law in the United States in a big way.

The Other Side of the Marriage Coin

While most of the attention from the ruling has been on the right to get married, there is, of course, another side to the coin that’s just as important, legally speaking. When you have the right to marry, you have the right to divorce. Last week’s decision was good news for many gay and lesbian couples in Nebraska and across the country – those looking to get married and those looking to get divorced.

Before last week’s decision, the patchwork of state laws on same sex marriage left Nebraska same sex couples who married in another state in legal limbo. They couldn’t get a divorce because Nebraska didn’t recognize their marriage in the first place. If you weren’t married in the eyes of the law, there was no marriage to dissolve with a divorce proceeding. You were stuck.

Pack your Bags and Settle in

Until last week, for Nebraska same sex couples to get a divorce, one spouse had to move to a state recognizing same sex marriage and establish residency before being allowed to file for divorce. Most states’ residency requirement is six months to one year.

For many, that sort of relocation flexibility isn’t possible, so they were stuck in a world of uncertainty regarding their rights and obligations – including the right to inherit, the right to sell property and the right to utilize income from that property.

Leaving Legal Limbo

Now, not only can same sex couples in Nebraska go to their county clerk’s office for a marriage license, they can go to the court clerk and file their divorce petition. For many this is going to be a huge relief.

The Supreme Court has held that a marriage is a marriage. That means the same laws that apply to opposite sex divorce in Nebraska now apply to same sex divorce. If a marriage is a marriage, a divorce is a divorce.

If you need help with a Nebraska divorce, the confident, clear, committed attorneys at Hightower Reff Law are here to help. Contact us online or call us at 402-932-9550.